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Metabolic Rift

A Selected Bibliography

Updated: January 25, 2018


  1. Angus, Ian. 2016. Facing the Anthropocene: Fossil Capitalism and the Crisis of the Earth System. Monthly Review Press: New York.
  2. Brockington, Dan, Rosaleen Duffy, and Jim Igoe. 2008. Nature Unbound: Conservation, Capitalism and the Future of Protected Areas. London: Earthscan.
  3. Burkett, Paul. 2006. Marxism and Ecological Economics. Boston: Brill.
  4. Burkett, Paul. 1999. Marx and Nature: A Red and Green Perspective. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  5. Carolan, Michael. 2012. The Sociology of Food and Agriculture. New York: Routledge.
  6. Carolan, Michael S. 2013. Society and the Environment: Pragmatic Solutions to Ecological Issues. Boulder: Westview Press.
  7. Clayton, Philip, and Justin Heinzekehr. 2014. Organic Marxism: An Alternative to Capitalism and Ecological Catastrophe. Claremont, CA: Process Century Press.
  8. Dickens, Peter. 2004. Society and Nature: Toward Green Social Theory. London: Polity.
  9. Empson, Martin. 2014. Land and Labour: Marxism, Ecology, and Human HistoryLondon: Bookmarks Publications
  10. Foster, John Bellamy. 2000. Marx’s Ecology: Materialism and Nature. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  11. Foster, John Bellamy. 2009. The Ecological Revolution: Making Peace with the Planet. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  12. Foster, John Bellamy, Brett Clark, and Richard York. 2010. The Ecological Rift: Capitalism’s War on the Earth. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  13. Foster, John Bellamy, and Paul Burkett. 2016. Marx and the Earth: An Anti-Critique. Brill.
  14. Heynen, Nik, Maria Kaika, and Erik Swyngedouw. 2006. In the Nature of Cities: Urban Political Ecology and the Politics of Urban Metabolism. New York: Routledge.
  15. Hudson, Mark. 2011. Fire Management in the American West: Forest Politics and the Rise of Megafires. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
  16. Koch, Max. 2011. Capitalism and Climate Change: Theoretical Discussion, Historical Development and Policy Responses. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.
  17. Longo, Stefano B, Rebecca Clausen, and Brett Clark. 2015. The Tragedy of the Commodity.
  18. Magdoff, Fred and John Bellamy Foster. 2010. What Every Environmentalist Needs to Know About Capitalism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  19. Odih, Pamela. 2014. Watersheds in Marxist Ecofeminism. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  20. Patterson, Thomas Carl. 2003. Marx’s Ghost Conversations with Archaeologists. New York: Berg.
  21. Salleh, Ariel. 2009. Eco-Sufficiency and Global Justice: Women Write Political Ecology. London: Pluto Press.
  22. Urry, John. 2011. Climate Change and Society. Cambridge: Polity.
  23. Wark, McKenzie. 2015. Molecular Red. New York: Verso.
  24. Weston, Del. The Political Economy of Global Warming. Routledge, 2014.


  1. Dockstader, Sue. 2012. “Engendering the Metabolic Rift: A feminist political ecology of agrofuels.” Masters Thesis. John Bellamy Foster, Chair. Eugene: University of Oregon.
  2. Flaherty, Eoin. 2012. “Modes of Production, Metabolism and Resilience: Toward a framework for the analysis of complex social-ecological systems.” Doctoral Thesis. Dr. Eamonn Slater, Supervisor, Maynooth: Maynooth University.

Book Chapters

  1. Bridge, Gavin. 2010. “Past Peak Oil: Political Economy of Energy Crises.” Pp. 207–324 in Global Political Ecology, edited by R. Peet, P. Robbins, and M. Watts.
  2. Foster, John Bellamy, and Fred Magdoff. 2000. “Liebig, Marx, and the Depletion of Soil Fertility: Relevance for Today’s Agriculture.” Pp. 23–41 in Hungry For Profit, edited by Fred Magdoff, John Bellamy Foster, and Frederick H. Buttel. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  3. Kudo, Hideaki. 2009. “Marx and the Environmental Problem.” Pp. 77–88 in Marx for the 21st Century, edited by Hiroshi Uchida. New York: Routledge.
  4. McMichael, Philip. 2012. “In the Short Run Are We All Dead? A Political Ecology of the Development Climate.” Pp. 137–160 in The Longue Durée and World-Systems Analysis, edited by Richard E. Lee. New York: SUNY Press.


  1. Austin, Kelly and Brett Clark. 2012. “Tearing Down Mountains: Using Spatial and Metabolic Analysis to Investigate the Socio-Ecological Contradictions of Coal Extraction in Appalachia,” Critical Sociology 38 (3): 437–57.
  2. Battistoni, Alyssa. 2014. “Nature’s Metropolis.” Jacobin, no. 15–16: 103–9.
  3. Burkett, Paul, and John Bellamy Foster. 2006. “Metabolism, Energy, and Entropy in Marx’s Critique of Political Economy: Beyond the Podolinsky Myth.” Theory and Society 35 (1): 109–156.
  4. Campbell, H. 2009. “Breaking New Ground in Food Regime Theory: Corporate Environmentalism, Ecological Feedbacks and the ‘Food from Somewhere’ Regime?Agriculture and Human Values, 26(4): 309–19.
  5. Clark, Brett, and John Bellamy Foster. 2009. “Ecological Imperialism and the Global Metabolic Rift.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 50 (3–4) (May 20): 311–334.
  6. Clark, Brett, and Richard York. 2005. “Carbon Metabolism: Global Capitalism, Climate Change, and the Biospheric Rift.” Theory and Society 34 (4): 391–428.
  7. Clausen, Rebecca and Brett Clark. 2005.  “The Metabolic Rift and Marine Ecology: An Analysis of the Ocean Crisis Within Capitalist Production.” Organization & Environment 18 (4): 422–44.
  8. Clausen, Rebecca. 2007. “Healing the Rift.” Monthly Review 59 (1): 40–52.
  9. Clausen, Rebecca, Brett Clark, and Stefano B Longo. 2015. “Metabolic Rifts and Restoration: Agricultural Crises and the Potential of Cuba’s Organic, Socialist Approach to Food Production.” World Review of Political Economy 6 (1): 4–32. doi:10.13169/worlrevipoliecon.6.1.0004.
  10. Clement, Matthew T. 2009. “A Basic Accounting of Variation in Municipal Solid‐Waste Generation at the County Level in Texas, 2006.” Rural Sociology 74 (3): 412–429.
  11. Crook, Martin, and Damien Short. 2014. “Marx, Lemkin and the Genocide–Ecocide Nexus.” The International Journal of Human Rights 18 (3): 298–319. doi:10.1080/13642987.2014.914703.
  12. Dobrovolski, Ricardo. 2012 “Marx’s Ecology and the Understanding of Land Cover Change.” Monthly Review 64 (1): 31–39.
  13. Ergas, Christina, and Matthew Thomas Clement. 2015. “Ecovillages, Restitution, and the Political-Economic Opportunity Structure: an Urban Case Study in Mitigating the Metabolic Rift.” Critical Sociology, January. SAGE Publications, 0896920515569085. doi:10.1177/0896920515569085.
  14. Farahani, Ilia. 2013. “Vanished in Gaps, Vanquished in Rifts: the Social Ecology of Urban Spatial Change in a Working Class Residential Area, Peykan-Shahr, Tehran, Iran.” Journal of Political Ecology 20: 395–412.
  15. Flaherty, Eoin. 2013. “Geographies of Communality, Colonialism, and Capitalism: Ecology and the World-System” Historical Geography 41.
  16. Foster, John Bellamy. 1999. “Marx’s Theory of Metabolic Rift: Classical Foundations for Environmental Sociology.” American Journal of Sociology 105 (2): 366–405.
  17. Foster, John Bellamy. 2013. “Marx and the Rift in the Universal Metabolism of Nature.” Monthly Review 65 (7): 1–19.
  18. Foster, John Bellamy and Hannah Holleman. 2014. “The Theory of Unequal Ecological Exchange: a Marx-Odum Dialectic.” The Journal of Peasant Studies. 41 (2): 199–233.
  19. Gunderson, Ryan. 2011. “The Metabolic Rifts of Livestock Agribusiness.” Organization & Environment 24 (4): 404–422.
  20. Graham, Nicolas J. 2015. “Ecological Forces of Production.” Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, Prepublication (January 8): 1–16. doi:10.1080/10455752.2014.994134.
  21. Huber, Matthew T. 2009. “Energizing Historical Materialism: Fossil Fuels, Space and the Capitalist Mode of Production.” Geoforum 40 (1): 105–115.
  22. Huber, Matthew T, and Timothy Currie. 2007. “The Urbanization of an Idea: Imagining Nature Through Urban Growth Boundary Policy in Portland, Oregon.” Urban Geography 28 (8): 705–731.
  23. Klein, Naomi. 2012. “Capitalism vs. the Climate.” The Nation November 28th.
  24. Lewis, Quentin. 2014. “‘Manure Manufactories’: Materializing the Metabolic Rift in Nineteenth-Century Deerfield, Massachusetts.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 18 (2): 242–258
  25. Longo, Stefano B. 2012. “Mediterranean Rift: Socio-Ecological Transformations in the Sicilian Bluefin Tuna Fishery.” Critical Sociology 38 (3): 417–436.
  26. Magdoff, Fred. 2011. “Ecological Civilization.” Monthly Review 62 (8): 1–25.
  27. Mancus, Philip. 2007. “Nitrogen Fertilizer Dependency and Its Contradictions.” Rural Sociology 72 (2): 269–288.
  28. McClintock, Nathan. 2010. “Why Farm the City? Theorizing Urban Agriculture Through a Lens of Metabolic Rift.” Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 3 (2): 191–207.
  29. McGee, Julius, and Camila Alvarez. 2016. “Sustaining Without Changing: The Metabolic Rift of Certified Organic Farming.” Sustainability 8 (2): 115–127.
  30. McLaughlin, Darrell and Michael Clow. 2006. “Healing the Metabolic Rift between Farming and the Eco-system.” Socialist Studies 2(2): 5–25.
  31. McMichael, Philip. 2008. “Agro-Fuels, Food Security, and the Metabolic Rift.” Kurswechsel 3: 14–22.
  32. Moore, Jason W. 2000. “Environmental Crises and the Metabolic Rift in World-Historical Perspective.” Organization & Environment 13 (2): 123–57.
  33. Moore, Jason W. 2011. “Transcending the Metabolic Rift: A Theory of Crises in the Capitalist World-Ecology.” Journal of Peasant Studies 38 (1): 1–46.
  34. Napoletano, Brian M, Jaime Paneque-Gálvez, and Antonio Vieyra. “Spatial Fix and Metabolic Rift as Conceptual Tools in Land-Change Science.” Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 26, no. 4 (September 2015): 198–214. doi:10.1080/10455752.2015.1104706.
  35. Nascimento, Humberto Miranda. 2009. “Pioneiros Da Ecologia Política Agrária Contemporânea [The Pioneers of the Contemporary Agrarian Political Ecology].” Ambiente & Sociedade 12 (2). Secretaria Editorial da Revista Ambiente e Sociedade: 257–72. doi:10.1590/S1414-753X2009000200004. (Portuguese PDFEnglish translation.)
  36. Newell, Joshua P, and Joshua J Cousins. 2014. “The Boundaries of Urban Metabolism: Towards a Political–Industrial Ecology.” Progress in Human Geography, Prepublication (December 5): 1–27. doi:10.1177/0309132514558442.
  37. Niblett, Michael. 2011. “When you take thing out the earth and you en’t put nothing back’: Nature, Form, and the Metabolic Rift in Jan Carew’s Black Midas.” Journal of Commonwealth Literature 46 (2): 237–255.
  38. Parenti, Christian. 2014. “The 2013 ANTIPODE AAG Lecture: the Environment Making State: Territory, Nature, and Value.” Antipode, 1–20. doi:10.1111/anti.12134.
  39. Pellow, David, N. and Hollie Nyseth Brehm. 2013. “An Environmental Sociology for the Twenty-First Century.” Annual Review of Sociology 39: 229–250
  40. Prudham, Scott. 2009. “Pimping Climate Change: Richard Branson, Global Warming, and the Performance of Green Capitalism.” Environment and Planning A 41 (7): 1594–1613.
  41. Saito, Kohei. 2015. “Reconstructing Marx’s Critique of Political Economy From His London Notebooks.” Monthly Review 67 (7): 57–61.
  42. Saito, Kohei. 2016. “Marx’s Ecological Notebooks.” Monthly Review 67 (9): 25–42.
  43. Salleh, Ariel. 2010. “From Metabolic Rift to ‘Metabolic Value’: Reflections on Environmental Sociology and the Alternative Globalization Movement.” Organization & Environment 23 (2): 205–19.
  44. Sanderson, Matthew R, and R. Scott Frey. 2014. “From Desert to Breadbasket…to Desert Again? a Metabolic Rift in the High Plains Aquifer.” Journal of Political Ecology 21: 516–32.
  45. Sbicca, Joshua. 2013. “The Need to Feed: Urban Metabolic Struggles of Actually Existing Radical Projects.” Critical Sociology Online Preprint Oct.7 2013
  46. Schneider, Mindi and Philip McMichael. 2010. “Deepening, and repairing, the metabolic rift.” Journal of Peasant Studies 37 (3): 461–484.
  47. Slater, Eamonn, and Eoin Flaherty. 2009. “Marx on Primitive Communism: The Irish Rundale Agrarian Commune, Its Internal Dynamics and the Metabolic Rift.” Irish Journal of Anthropology 12 (2): 5–34.
  48. Slater, Eamonn, and Terrence McDonough. 2008. “Marx on Nineteenth-Century Colonial Ireland: Analysing Colonialism as a Dynamic Social Process.” Irish Historical Studies 36 (142): 153–72.
  49. Slater, Eemon. 2013. “The Sprawling Global Lawns of the Emerald Isle: A Dialectical Unfolding.” Journal of Ecocriticism 5 (2): 1–21.
  50. Wishart, Ryan. 2012.  “Coal River’s Last Mountain: King Coal’s Après moi le déluge Reign.Organization & Environment 25 (4): 470–85.
  51. Wittman, Hannah. 2009. “Reworking the Metabolic Rift.” Journal of Peasant Studies 36 (4): 805–826.
  52. York, Richard. 2009. “Metabolic Rift.” The Encyclopedia of Earth (Aug. 21). (Accessed 10/15/2013).
  53. York, Richard, and Philip Mancus. 2009. “Critical Human Ecology.” Sociological Theory 27 (2): 122–149.
  54. York, Richard, Eugene A. Rosa, and Thomas Dietz. 2003. “A Rift in Modernity? Assessing the Anthropogenic Sources of Global Climate Change with the STIRPAT Model.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 23 (10): 31–51.
  55. Žižek, Slavoj. 2015. “Ecology Against Mother Nature: Review of Molecular Red by McKenzie Wark.” Verso Books. May 26.
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