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John J. Simon: Socialist Editor, Writer, and Broadcaster

John J Simon

John J. Simon at the Center for Cuban Studies, 2015. Photo courtesy of Sandra Levinson.

John Bellamy Foster is editor of Monthly Review and professor emeritus of sociology at the University of Oregon. John Mage is an officer and director of the Monthly Review Foundation and a retired attorney.

Einstein was a radical from his student days until his dying breath. In the last year of his life, ruminating about the political affairs of the day and his world outlook, he told a friend that he remained a “revolutionary,” and was still a “fire-belching Vesuvius.”

John J. Simon, “Albert Einstein, Radical: A Political Profile,” Monthly Review, May 1982.

Socialist editor, writer, and broadcaster, John Jacob Simon, who died in New York at age 88 on December 16, 2022, devoted his life to underlaboring for radical causes. As an editor at Random House and Times Books, he was involved in the publication of some of the iconic dissenting books of the late twentieth century. As a producer at WNET (THIRTEEN) and general manager of Pacifica Radio’s WBAI, Simon played a major role in radical broadcasting in the United States. He also was a member of the board of the Rabinowitz Foundation and a committee member for the James Aronson Award for Social Justice Journalism. Beginning in the late 1990s, he became a director of the Monthly Review Foundation and a member of the editorial committees of both Monthly Review and Monthly Review Press. His writings, usually biographical essays, in Monthly Review and the Guardian were known for their historical detail, clarity of thought, and literary quality.

Simon was born on October 30, 1934, and grew up in Manhattan in an aging 1840s house on East Fourth Street near Lafayette Street, now demolished. Next door was the Old Merchant’s House.1 The neighborhood had once been solidly bourgeois in the mid-nineteenth century, but it had long since been turned into a light manufacturing district. As a high school student, he and friends formed a group that met at his house to “talk politics and eat,” calling themselves the “Village Intercultural Group.”2 He was strongly taken up by the 1949 Vito Marcantonio campaign for mayor on the American Labor Party ticket, and many years later contributed his collection of the songs used in the campaign in conjunction with his biographical sketch of Marcantonio.3 He attended Bard College in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York.

In 1959, in his mid-twenties, Simon started at Alfred A. Knopf, where his mentor was the well-known radical publisher and editor Angus Cameron. As Simon later wrote of the publishing industry in the early post-Second World War era:

The publishing industry’s role during the Second World War was an essential precursor to what followed.… The industry was mobilized and was assisting the mass literacy campaigns following the advent of the draft in 1940 (a large minority of the recruits, it turned out, were functionally illiterate) and the Books in Wartime program, begun in 1943, that published hundreds of millions of cheap paperbacks for distribution to the troops here and abroad. So while domestic publishing was still hurting from the Depression and from wartime paper rationing, it garnered profits and inculcated a habit of reading among millions. The so-called Armed Forces editions were in great demand—and, of course, the target of attack by the proto-McCarthyite forces of the right.

I think this is especially important from a socialist perspective because it’s an example of successful state intervention. The GI Bill itself led to an expansion in secondary and higher education and increased demand for books, both texts and serious literature. Through the ’50s and early ’60s that demand continued. Anchor Books, founded in 1953, and Vintage Books, started by Knopf a few years later, were a direct result of government policy in higher education. And after Sputnik in 1957, the National Defense Education Act, and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, effectively provided direct subsidies to book publishers. By the time I became active in publishing in 1959, I knew that, with some careful thought, I could publish books from the left, almost without risk of financial loss; in fact, I did so throughout the ’60s into the early ’80s.

Moreover, I was not the only editor conscious of this. Colleagues at other houses were able to do this as well. The books were there for the picking. Often I would visit a campus, talk to the students in SDS [Students for a Democratic Society] chapters who would point me in the direction of radical faculty and I’d sign them to contracts.… Leo [Huberman], the Pauls [Paul A. Baran and Paul M. Sweezy] and [Herbert] Marcuse were aware [of] and discussed this dynamic with me (and, I should say, Carey McWilliams of The Nation, Gerry Piel of Scientific American and, of course, my colleague/comrade Angus Cameron at Knopf, as well).4

Cameron was described in Time magazine in October 1951 as “the foremost United States book editor.” Yet, the very same issue of Time reported on how he had resigned as editor-in-chief at Little, Brown and Co., where he was forced out in the McCarthyite witch-hunts of the late 1940s and ’50s in response to his work with such authors as Lillian Hellman and Howard Fast. In 1953, Cameron started a small publishing house, Cameron House, mainly publishing works by blacklisted writers, including J. D. Bernal’s Science in History. But, with the fall of Joseph McCarthy, Alfred Knopf ended the blacklisting of Cameron by hiring him as senior editor in 1959.5 It was Cameron who, at this time, helped Simon get his start.

In 1960, Knopf, including its paperback imprint Vintage, was purchased by Random House. Simon then became an editor at Random House, where he continued to be associated with Vintage. Rising eventually to executive editor there, he took advantage of the leftward trend in the 1960s. He was good friends with the Marxist economist Paul Baran, corresponding with him on economic and cultural trends.6 He later wrote: “I was having dinner with Marcuse, as it happens, at the Oyster Bar in Grand Central Station, and Christopher Koch of Pacifica Radio and WBAI joined us a bit late with word he’d just gotten off the news wire about Baran’s death [on March 26, 1964]. It stunned all of us.”7 Simon and Koch were meeting with Marcuse on that occasion in preparation for what was to become an interview on WBAI on Marcuse’s just-published book One-Dimensional Man.8

An old friend of Simon’s told us that “in the ’60s, he was certainly the go-to guy for getting lefty books published by mainstream publishers.”9 As Simon later recalled, he was engaged primarily in “publishing books on the ongoing struggles of women, the poor, and the third world both here and abroad, as well as critical analyses of U.S. foreign and domestic policy.” He also dealt with theater and film criticism and edited poetry.10 He played a central role in the publication of works by the Black Panthers, for whom he also organized fundraisers. While editing Stokely Carmichael (later Kwame Ture) and Charles V. Hamilton’s Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America (1967), he met with both authors when the book was still in outline form, gave extensive feedback on the structure of the book, closely supervised the copyediting, and saw the book through its publication and multiple substantial reprints.

Simon was interested in typography and cover design and when Black Power was released the dust jacket designed by Larry Ratzkin had a form that was to become iconic. “The cover was simple yet profound: a white field, the center crowded—almost to exploding—with the giant words ‘Black Power’ in a thick, slab-serifed type. The authors’ names and book subtitle stack above and below, in a more elegant, thin sans-serif. That’s it. No images, no frills. The ten big black letters of the title completely dominate the white background, as if to say ‘That’s all, folks!'”11 Simon also edited Bobby Seale, Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton (1970).12

In 1963, Harry Magdoff, later to become editor of Monthly Review, was editor and co-owner of the publishing firm Russell and Russell, which mainly reprinted out-of-print scholarly books. Magdoff contacted Simon about contracting a paperback edition of W. E. B. Du Bois’s great 1935 work Black Reconstruction in America, which Russell and Russell had brought back into print in 1956. As Simon explained:

Harry had published a hardcover literary edition of his friend Du Bois’s greatest work, but he knew that this book and others could and should become weapons in the armories of the thousands of black and white students going South to end decades of social and political segregation and economic exploitation. We published the paperback in the immediate aftermath of the 1963 March on Washington. In the following year, with gentle prodding from Harry, some of us in the industry started a fund that sent books to the newly emerging freedom schools—teaching literacy and the ins and outs of a repressive voter registration system. That too was socialism on the ground.13

Some of the other leftist works that Simon edited at Random House were Robert J. Lifton, Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima (1967, National Book Award winner); Jean Lacouture, Ho Chi Minh: A Political Biography (1968); Abbie Hoffman, Woodstock Nation (1969); Michael Parenti, The Anti-Communist Impulse (1969); Thomas Emerson, The System of Freedom of Expression (1969); and Charles Reich, The Greening of America (1970). Simon also advised Hoffman on his book, Steal This Book (1971), though Hoffman took it to another publisher.14

With the rapid growth of new social movements in the 1960s, including the civil rights movement, antiwar movement, the feminist movement, the gay liberation movement, and the environmental movement—coupled with the emergence of radical economics—there was a need for the publication of “Readers” and lots of up-and-coming writers to fill them. Simon took a lead in bringing all of this together. Among the more influential Readers that he took a leading role in facilitating for Random House included Marcus G. Raskin and Bernard B. Fall’s The Viet-Nam Reader: Articles and Documents on American Foreign Policy and the Viet-Nam Crisis (1965, 1967)—Simon was immensely proud of the fact that this book was banned from all United States Information Agency libraries throughout the world, and tried to get the Random House publicity department to highlight the fact—and Marvin E. Gettleman and David Mermelstein’s The Great Society Reader: The Failure of American Liberalism (1967).

The Rabinowitz Foundation, with Simon as a board member, was instrumental in providing support for Marcuse during the writing of One-Dimensional Man (1964) and Susan Brownmiller in her work on Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape (1975). The Rabinowitz Foundation also provided support in these years to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.15

In 1969, the New York Times Book Company was established when the New York Times Company purchased Quadrangle Books. The new company was soon to change its name to Times Books. Simon was hired as executive editor of Times Books, where he worked with the Quadrangle imprint. A key work he helped to inspire and edit in this period was Lifton’s The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (1986).16 As Lifton explained in his memoirs:

It [The Nazi Doctors] began with a phone call from John J. Simon, who had been my editor at Random House for Death in Life and was now with a different publisher, Quadrangle Books, which was owned by The New York Times. John told me with some excitement that Quadrangle had gained access through the Times to extensive documents on Josef Mengele and other Nazi doctors in Auschwitz, assembled by a judge who had done elaborate investigations for criminal trials in Frankfurt. The judge was to arrive in a couple of days, and John and his colleagues wanted to talk to me about doing a study of Mengele. Was I interested? I was, and met the next day with John and another editor, and again the following day with them and Judge Horst von Glasenapp.… Yet well before John Simon’s phone call, I had been heading toward a Holocaust study. My decision during the mid-sixties to compare psychologically Hiroshima survivors to survivors of Nazi camps was an early step in that direction.17

Once he began the research into the Nazi doctors, including direct interviews of both perpetrators and victims of the Holocaust, Lifton was overwhelmed with a sense of trauma. “Two meetings with friends,” as he explained in his memoirs, helped pull him out of this state. One of these was with Simon, the other with Holocaust survivor and Nobel Laureate Elie Wiesel.18

At Times Books, Simon served as the editor for John D. Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”: The CIA and Mind Control (1979). The book was based on 16,000 pages of CIA documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, which were used to expose illegal CIA drug programs. “In researching the material,” according to the Washington Post, “Marks said he found that CIA mind-control researchers trained secret police in Uruguay and South Korea, and funded an extensive program of LSD and shock-treatment research at McGill University in Canada.”19

By the 1980s, the conditions of publishing left books in the United States had changed dramatically. A political turn to the right, the weakening of social movements, and a vast shift in the takeover of publishing by corporate conglomerates and financial interests, with more conservative agendas and an exclusive focus on the bottom line, transformed the entire industry.20 As a result, in the mid-1980s Simon shifted from publishing to broadcasting, taking up positions as a general manager at WBAI/Pacifica and a producer at WNET. WBAI produced a vast array of programming that was aired nationally and worldwide through the Pacifica Radio network. His strategy at WBAI was to combat the troubles facing the station at the time by reemphasizing ideas and imagination and re-instilling creativity while promoting critical views, moving away from “a flood of writing, music and images that dulls our sensibilities, thwarts our curiosity, and tells us that the world they [the vested interests] have given us is O.K., even if we aren’t (but that, they tell us, is our own fault).” WBAI, that is, should buck the trends of the age of conglomeration, bottom line, and conformity, and scale up what it does best: creative and critical work that excites the imagination. One of the early programs aired during Simon’s tenure was “Arming the Heavens,” which scrutinized in depth Ronald Reagan’s proposed Star Wars nuclear defense system.21 Simon brought the same values to his work as senior producer at WNET (THIRTEEN) in New York, where he helped produce the Feminism TV series, which ran from 1989–90 and consisted of talks/interviews, funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

In the early 1980s Simon met Kathy Dobkin, a producer at WBAI, and they became life partners. With the Vietnam War continuing seemingly unceasingly into the 1970s, Dobkin, in a major achievement, in September 1970 came up with the idea of a marathon, twenty-four hours a day, on-air reading of Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace, corresponding with the centennial of the masterpiece. The broadcast occurred from December 2–6, 1970. Numerous celebrities were drawn in to read sections of the first U.S. translation by Ann Dunnigan. Dobkin was able to convince Tolstoy’s daughter, Alexandra, to participate in the broadcast.22 Simon and Dobkin would go on to work together on numerous projects.

In October 1990, Mortimer J. Adler, editor of the “Great Books” series, was reported as saying that none of the works of W. E. B. Du Bois merited inclusion in the “Great Books.” In response, Simon wrote an op-ed for the New York Times titled “Black History Is Central to American History; Du Bois Deserves Better.” Refuting Adler’s contention, he pointed to the fact that the Library of America, in a volume of their series, had reprinted The Suppression of the African Slave Trade, The Souls of Black Folk, and Dusk of Dawn. “The scholarly distinction and the seminal influence of each of these works,” Simon wrote in his op-ed, “is a matter of common agreement in academic circles. Were Dr. Adler and his colleagues at the Encyclopedia Britannica simply ignorant of the work of America’s most distinguished black scholar, or having chosen to exclude Du Bois for whatever reason, did they compound that folly by disregarding his acknowledged contributions to Western social thought?”23

In the late 1990s, Simon retired from his career in broadcasting. Yet, rather than becoming inactive, he was to become a director of the Monthly Review Foundation and devote much of his energy to Monthly Review and Monthly Review Press. In working on a voluntary basis with MR in his retirement years, Simon was, in a sense, coming home, as he had long been a member of the MR family and a friend of editors Sweezy, Huberman, and Magdoff. Simon’s redirection of his energies to MR came at a propitious time, as the magazine and press were going through a series of travails typical of left publications in the 1990s, further complicated by the fact that longtime editors Magdoff and Sweezy were both in their eighties. Simon, along with a handful of others in the late 1990s (including Ellen Meiksins Wood, who coedited the magazine from 1997–2000), played an invaluable role in stepping in and guaranteeing the future of the magazine and the press.

Lifton referred to Simon as “a somewhat quixotic editor,” a big thinker, and a dreamer. In many ways he was to play this role at MR, combining these qualities with his vast practical experience in publishing.24 He was always a generator of imaginative new ideas, often stressing broader connections in the spirit of the Popular Front moment out of which MR had arisen in 1949. His constant good cheer and indomitable spirit were contagious. With his encouragement, both the magazine and the press expanded their connections and revived old ones in the areas of radical politics, culture, and science, together with social movements. He brought his interest in poetry to the magazine, and, together with Magdoff, encouraged such important poets as Adrienne Rich, Marge Piercy, and Sam Hamill to write for the magazine, and arranged a special feature on “Poets Protest the War,” in response to the U.S. invasion of Iraq.25 In his last years, he, with the help of Dobkin and several others, did much to redesign the cover of Monthly Review, utilizing his knowledge of typography. A new standard design incorporating the use of images was introduced at his urging in 2022. At Monthly Review Press, Simon played an important supportive role in the socialist-oriented restructuring that took place in the early 2000s, putting the operation on a firmer basis.

Besides helping with everyday challenges, JJS, as he was frequently called at MR, was finally able to focus more on writing and composed a series of pieces for Monthly Review and the Guardian, mainly devoted to biographies of key left figures in whom he had a special interest. This is best conveyed by the titles of his articles for MR: “Ella Baker, Who Would Not Rest for Freedom” (November 1998); “Sweezy v. New Hampshire: The Radicalism of Principle” (April 2000); “Remembering Nora Sayre” (October 2001); “Palestinian Geography and the Peace Process: A Cartographic Addendum” (October 2001); “‘Unacknowledged Legislators’: Poets Protest the War (Introduction)” (April 2003); “Leo Huberman: Radical Agitator, Socialist Teacher” (October 2003); “The Achievement of Malcolm X” (February 2005); “Albert Einstein, Radical: A Political Profile” (May 2005); “Rebel in the House: The Life and Times of Vito Marcantonio” (April 2006); “Socialism on the Ground” (October 2006, on Magdoff); “The Death and Life of Che” (November 2007); “Aimé Fernand Césaire (1913–2008): The Clarity of Struggle” (June 2008); “Pete Seeger, Socialist Songster: Introduction” (with Amy Schrager Lang, January 2015); “A Portrait of Gil Green” (with Michael Myerson, January 2021). Simon’s “Albert Einstein, Radical” explored the larger context that led Einstein to publish his article “Why Socialism?” in volume 1, number 1 of Monthly Review in May 1949.

Simon also wrote articles and obituaries for the Guardian on Angus Cameron (November 29, 2002), Joanne Grant (January 25, 2005), and Victor Rabinowitz (January 11, 2008).

Simon and Dobkin were among a small number of regulars who ate routinely at the Beatrice Inn, “a cozy, subterranean Italian place in the West Village,” which depended entirely on neighborhood clientele and was “seldom intruded upon by noninitiates”—though on several occasions, the board of the Monthly Review Foundation dined there after meetings. It was one of the last reminders of an earlier time. Others who dined there included such famous regulars as the journalist Charles Kuralt and the urban analyst Jane Jacobs. The building that housed the restaurant was sold in 2005, resulting in the closing of the Beatrice Inn. A 2005 New York Times article entitled “Regulars Prepare for a Last Hurrah” ends with “Mr. Simon…hasn’t figured out an alternative to dining at the Beatrice six nights a week. ‘You know, there was a time before all this started that I was a great cook,’ he said brightly. But when asked what he meant by ‘a time before all this started,’ he sheepishly said: ‘Well, ’68, ’69. I guess I just don’t know what I’m going to do yet. I’m in a huge state of denial.'”26

But in the larger political sense, beyond Simon’s personal milieux and the sad closing of the Beatrice Inn, Simon had no doubt or denial. Socialism was not some abstract cause he believed in, but rather what he called “socialism on the ground,” connected to “everyday action” in support of revolutionary humanity in all of its movements and struggles.27


  1. Merchant’s House Museum,
  2. Russell Targ, Do You See What I See?: Memoirs of a Blind Biker (Charlottesville: Hampton Roads Publishing, 2008), 94.
  3. John J. Simon, “‘Make Marc Mayor’: Songs for Political Action,” MROnline, April 6, 2006; John J. Simon, “Rebel in the House: The Life and Times of Vito Marcantonio,” Monthly Review 57, no. 11 (April 2006): 25–46.
  4. John J. Simon to John Bellamy Foster, April 22, 2013. The occasion for this letter was the preparation of the special July–August 2013 issue of Monthly Review on “The Cultural Apparatus of Monopoly Capital.” The introduction to the special issue by Foster and Robert W. McChesney on which Simon was commenting addressed the nature of the publishing industry under monopoly capitalism after the Second World War. The immediate context was the publication for the first time in that issue of Paul A. Baran and Paul M. Sweezy, “The Quality of Monopoly Capitalist Society: Culture and Communications.” This chapter had been drafted (by Baran) for Baran and Sweezy’s Monopoly Capital (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1966) but had been left out of the final book due to the incomplete state of the draft chapter at the time of Baran’s death in 1964. In writing their introduction, Foster and McChesney consulted with Simon, who had not only been directly involved in the publishing industry in the years being addressed but had also discussed these matters with Baran and Sweezy themselves at the time.
  5. John J. Simon, “Angus Cameron,” Guardian, November 29, 2002.
  6. Paul A. Baran to Paul M. Sweezy, July 2, 1961, and Paul A. Baran to Paul M. Sweezy, July 13, 1961, in Paul Alexander Baran Papers, Online Archive of California, Stanford University,
  7. John J. Simon to John Bellamy Foster, January 17, 2014.
  8. Herbert Marcuse, interview on One-Dimensional Man with John Simon and Christopher Koch, July 1964, 59:00, Pacifica Programs Catalog (1971).
  9. Martin Kenner to Martin Paddio at Monthly Review Foundation, January 4, 2023.
  10. John J. Simon, “Report to the Listener,” WBAI Folio, June 1985.
  11. John McPhee, “Power, Fists, Guns, Books: Black Power and Book Cover Design,” June 13, 2016,
  12. Extensive correspondence between Simon and these and other authors is to be found in Author Correspondence of Editor John J. Simon, 1966–1970, Random House records; Boxes 853–67; Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library. See also Tom Wolfe, “Radical Chic: That Party at Lenny’s,” New York, June 8, 1970, 28, 44; Andrew M. Fearnley, “The Black Panthers’ Publishing Strategies and the Financial Underpinnings of Activism, 1968–1975,” The Historical Journal 62, no. 1 (September 2018): 195–217; Curt Schleier, “How It Was Done,” New York Times, July 12, 1970.
  13. John J. Simon, “Socialism on the Ground,” Monthly Review 58, no. 5 (October 2006): 49–51. The paperback edition of Black Reconstruction—though designed to be released at the time of the March on Washington—also corresponded to Du Bois’s death in 1963. One of us recalls Simon saying that they put the Black fist on the spine of Du Bois’s book, though neither of us has seen that edition of the book. If this is correct, it was one of the first uses of the Black fist, standing for Black Power, in publishing. See McPhee, “Power, Fists, Guns, Books.”
  14. Author Correspondence of John J. Simon, Columbia University Library; Robert J. Lifton, Witness to an Extreme Century: A Memoir (New York: The Free Press, 2011), 148; Malcolm G. Scully, “Reich’s ‘Greening of America’ Makes Him Prophet of Youth,” Chronicle of Higher Education, November 9, 1970.
  15. Rabinowitz Foundation,” Sourcewatch,; Susan Brownmiller, Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape (New York: Ballantine, 1975), 407; Simon, “Socialism on the Ground.”
  16. Robert J. Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York: Basic Books, 1986). Despite the work on The Nazi Doctors beginning when Simon approached Lifton for Times Books/Quadrangle and Simon’s crucial supportive role while the book was being developed, it ended up being published by Basic Books, then an imprint of Harper and Row. By that time, Simon had moved on to broadcasting.
  17. Lifton, Witness to an Extreme Century, 240–41.
  18. Lifton, Witness to an Extreme Century, 255.
  19. John Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”: The CIA and Mind Control (New York: Times Books, 1979), author’s note; Sharon Weinberger, “When the CIA Was into Mind Control,” New York Times, September 10, 2019; “John D. Marks,”; Bill Richards, “Book Disputes CIA Chief on Mind Control Efforts,” Washington Post, January 29, 1979.
  20. André Schiffrin, The Business of Books: How the International Conglomerates Took Over Publishing and Changed the Way We Read (London: Verso, 2001); Simon, “Report to the Listener.”
  21. Simon, “Report to the Listener.”
  22. Gordon Spencer, “The Joys of WNCN and WBAI: The Sorrows of War,” April 23, 2017; “WBAI’s War and Peace Broadcast 35 Years Later,” Democracy Now!, December 6, 2005.
  23. Adler specifically claimed that Du Bois’s “most important book, his autobiography” did not meet all three of the criteria for inclusion in the “Great Books” series: (1) relevance to the contemporary world, (2) worthy of rereading, and (3) a connection to the great ideas that continually confront humanity. Simon retorted that no academic authority on Du Bois would consider his autobiography to be among his most important works, which included The Suppression of the African Slave Trade, The Souls of Black Folk, Dusk of Dawn, and (though not mentioned in his op-ed, since not yet included in the Library of America series), Black Reconstruction in America. John J. Simon, “Black History Is Central to American History; Du Bois Deserves Better,” New York Times, November 9, 1990; Edwin McDowell, “‘Great Books’ Takes in Moderns and Women,” New York Times, October 25, 1990; Bill Farrell, “Du Bois and the Boys’ Club of the ‘Great Books,’“ Trotter Institute Review 6, no. 1 (January 1, 1992): 15–17. Du Bois’s Black Reconstruction, originally published in 1935, was brought back into print by Magdoff at Russell and Russell in 1956, and first released in paperback by Magdoff with Simon’s help in 1963. It is now included in a Library of America edition. See W. E. B. Du Bois, Writings: The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade; The Souls of Black Folk; Dusk of Dawn (New York: Library of America, 1986); W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction (New York: Library of America, 2021).
  24. Lifton, Witness to an Extreme Century, 148.
  25. ‘Unacknowledged Legislators’: Poets Protest the War,” Monthly Review 54, no. 11 (April 2003): 42–60.
  26. David Kamp, “Regulars Prepare for a Last Hurrah,” New York Times, October 26, 2005.
  27. Simon, “Socialism on the Ground.”
2023, Volume 74, Number 11 (April 2023)
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